List of Figures and Photographs

The photographs and figures on this website were taken from a wide variety of sources. A list of most images organized by their location on this site. Usage in reference to copyright is offered. Read more about Fair Use at the bottom of the Descriptions page. Tables are not listed as those are active data sets that change.

On to the attributions:

Home

  • Home-1: Photograph of guzheng product display, Music China 2018. Source: GZA

Welcome Page

Community

Experts

  • CE-1: Closeup of guzheng bridges. Source: US Department of Agriculture, Public Domain

  • CE-2: Portrait of carol Chang. Source: Carol Chang. Used with permission.

  • CE-3: Portrait of Dr. Mei Han. Source: Mei Han. Used with permission.

Ensembles

  • EN-1: Group guzheng performance for a school’s annual “Arts Fest”, 2013. Source: ArtsFest_008 by Aesthir, Used under BY NC ND License

  • EN-2: Dynamic map of guzheng ensembles in North America. Source: GZA

Performers

  • PE-1: A guzheng performer photographed from above. Source: US Department of Agriculture, Public Domain

  • PE-2: Portrait of Wu Fei, guzheng performer. Source: Wu Fei. Used with permission.

  • PE-3: Portrait of Yukes, musician. Source: Yukes. Used with permission.

  • PE-4: Portrait of Beibei, guzheng performer. Source: Beibei. Used with permission.

Retailers

Teachers

Special Thanks

  • none

Guides

Care and Maintenance

  • none

Cost of Ownership

  • CO-1: ~2000s Dunhuang guzheng, full size. Source: GZA

  • CO-2: Plastic guzheng nails. Source: GZA

  • CO-3: Three styles of finger tape. Source: GZA

  • CO-4: Four brands of guzheng string. Source: GZA

  • CO-5: Three different sets of guzheng stands. Source: GZA

  • CO-6: Two different types of tuners. Source: GZA

  • CO-7: A classic guzheng hard case. Source: GZA

Digitizing Scores

  • DS-1: SimpErhu icon. Source: SimpErhu. Used under Fair Use.

  • DS-2: Noteability Pro icon. Source: Noteability Pro. Used under Fair Use.

  • DS-3: Unclear music scan. Source: GZA

  • DS-4: Clear music scan. Source: GZA

  • DS-5: Enlargement of DS-3

  • DS-6: Enlargement of DS-4

Finger Technique

  • FT-1: Closeup on the hands of multiple guzheng players. Source: "Guzheng" by Erwin Soo, used under CC-BY-2.0.

  • FT-2: Diagram of nails taped to write hand. Source: Guzheng Alive, inspired by photograph from Lee/Gresham 2002 Volume One.

Key Changes

  • none

Shipping Guzheng

  • SG-1: Guzheng shipping container. Source: GZA

  • SG-2: Same as CO-7. Guzheng Hard Case. Source: GZA

Tuning Guzheng

  • TG-1: Diagram of bridge spacings for a 21-string instrument tuned to the key of G. Source: GZA

Tuning 16, 18, 23, 26-string guzheng

  • none

History:

The Guzheng in 90 Seconds

  • 90S-1: Full sized guzheng from Sound of China. Source: Guzheng Alive

The Guzheng Story

Timelines

Premodern

  • TL-2: Digital illustration of zither players from ancient art. Source: rendered From Music in the Age of Confucius. Used under Fair Use.

  • TL-3: Digital illustration of Western Han Dynasty zheng. Source: rendered from Cheng 1991. Used under Fair Use.

  • TL-4: Digital illustration of Cao Wei Dynasty zheng. Source: rendered from Cheng 1991. Used under Fair Use.

  • TL-5: Digital illustration of Tang Dynasty zheng. Source: rendered from Cheng 1991. Used under Fair Use.

  • TL-6: 19th century Japanese koto. Source: MFA, Boston. Used under Fair Use/MFA’s copyright policies.

  • TL-7: Northern Song Dynasty zheng. Source: rendered from Cheng 1991. Used under Fair Use.

  • TL-8: Yuan Dynasty zheng. Source: rendered from Cheng 1991. Used under Fair Use.

  • TL-9: Republican Era zheng . Source: rendered from Cheng 1991. Used under Fair Use.

Modern

  • TL-10: Portrait of Liang Tsai-Ping. Source: guzheng.cn. Used under Fair Use.

  • TL-11: Portrait of Cáo Zhèng. Source: guzheng.cn. Used under Fair Use.

  • TL-12: Portrait of Zhào Yùzhāi shown in 1983. Source: guzheng.cn. Used under Fair Use.

  • TL-13: Portrait of Wèi Zhònglè. Source: baidu.com. Used under Fair Use.

  • TL-14: Portrait of Wáng Xùnzhī, center, and students. Source: baidu.com. Used under Fair Use.

  • TL-15: Portrait of Xú Zhèngāo in 2016, inspecting a guzheng frame. Source: qianlong.com. Used under Fair Use.

  • TL-16: Portrait of Wáng Chāngyuán. Source: baidu.com. Used under Fair Use.

Instrument

Guzheng Varieties

  • GV-1: Different guzheng models on display. Source: Guzheng(s) by bmeabroad, used under BY-NC-SA 2.0

  • GV-2: Full sized guzheng from Sound of China. Source: GZA.

  • GV-3: 18-string C-bridge guzheng model #01157. Source: guzheng maker Jinyun, jy-cn.cn Used under Fair Use.

  • GV-4: Split Bridge guzheng model #01118. Source: guzheng maker Jinyun, jy-cn.cn Used under Fair Use.

  • GV-5: 26-string Taiwanese guzheng. Source: ChineseZither.net storefront. Used with Permission.

  • GV-6: 36-string guzheng. Source: GuzhengForum.com. Used with Permission.

  • GV-7: 53” Travel-sized guzheng from Sound of China. Source: GZA

  • GV-8: 36" Baby guzheng. Source: Rebecca L. Used with Permission.

  • GV-9: Ineffectual practice device. Source: GZA

  • GV-10: Butterfly zheng. Source: HKzhengart.com. Used under Fair Use.

  • GV-11: “W” zheng. Source: guzheng58.com. Used under Fair Use.

  • GV-12: Multitonic zheng. Source: stmusic.com.tw. Used under Fair Use.

  • GV-13: Electric Guzheng from MeIdeal. Source: ChineseZither Facebook. Used with permission.

  • GV-14: Novelty guzheng butterfly sculpture. Source: Eason Music. Used under Fair Use.

  • GV-15: Novelty guzheng piano from Guzheng Forum. Used with permission.

  • GV-16: 16-string Steel String guzheng with exposed tunings. Source: GZA

  • GV-17: 16-string Steel String guzheng with hidden tunings. Source: GZA

  • GV-18: 18-string Steel String guzheng. Source: GZA

  • GV-19: Custom made 18-string Steel String guzheng. Source GZA

  • GV-20: Pre-1984 modulated zheng. Source: Royal Museum of Art and History, Brussels, Belgium. Used under Fair Use.

  • GV-21: 22-string key-changeable zheng, Model 65. Source: Han 2013. Used under Fair Use.

  • GV-22: Modulated zheng made by Yinkou owned by Dr. Han. Source: Han 2013. Used under Fair Use.

  • GV-23: 36-String Pedal Zheng made in 1972. Source: Music Research Institute via Han 2013. Used under Fair Use.

  • GV-24: 44-string pedal zheng made in 1972. Source: Music Research Institute via Han 2013. Used under Fair Use.

  • GV-25: 21-string pedal zheng made in 1974. Source: Music Research Institute via Han 2013. Used under Fair Use.

  • GV-26: Oldest known zheng. Source: Smithsonian Institute, Washington D.C. The Smithsonian Institute further attributes the image to Huang Xiangpeng 1996, Zhongguo yinyue wenwu daxi, volume on Jiangsu/Shanghai: 248-51, Zhengzhou: Daxiang Press. Used under Fair Use.

  • GV-27: 19th century 16-string Zheng. Source: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, USA. Used under Fair Use.

  • GV-28: 19th centruy 14-string zheng. Source: Royal Museum of Art and History, Brussels, Belgium. Used under Fair Use.

Other Zithers

  • OZ-1: "Sanjo Gayageum" by Craig Moe. Used under BY-NC 2.0.

  • OZ-2: Koto, From the Museum of fine Arts, Boston, MA, USA. Used under Fair Use.

  • OZ-3: Koto, Photo by Mr.TinDC at the Folklife festival in Washington D.C., USA, in 2010. Used with Permission.

  • OZ-4: 80-string koto made by Mitsuya Koto for Miyagi Michio, circa 1929. Source: Image from Miyagi Michio Koto Association. Used under Fair Use.

  • OZ-5: A Đàn tranh sold at auction in 2012. Source: Case Antiques. Used under Fair Use.

  • OZ-6: Closeup of a Đàn tranh sold at auction in 2012. Source: Case Antiques. Used under Fair Use.

  • OZ-7: Interior label of a Đàn tranh sold at auction in 2012. Source: Case Antiques. Used under Fair Use.

  • OZ-8: Đàn tranh YouTube video: Tri Nguyen with Qaïs Saadi "A Journey Between Worlds" EPK (Official/New EP 2016). Source: Youtube. Used under Fair Use (though frankly, I don’t know how embedding works with copyright).

  • OZ-9: Gayageum of different styles. Source: Korean Cultural Heritage Foundation. Used under Fair Use.

  • OZ-10: Mongolian Yatga Youtube video: Solo musician Ch. Munkh-Erdene; a concert variation for yatga.avi Source: Youtube. Used under Fair Use?

  • OZ-11: Kazakh Jetigen Youtube video: "В ожидании" Аида - Куткенде | Жетіген - национальный инструмент. Source: Youtube. Used under Fair Use.

  • OZ-12: Kazakh Jetigen with singing Youtube video: Жетіген шерту Жанерке Source: Youtube. Used under Fair Use.

  • OZ-13: Unknown Chinese zither 1 from Musée Du Palais Lascaris, Nice, France via MIMO. Used under Fair Use.

  • OZ-14: Se. Source: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, USA. Used under Fair Use.

  • OZ-15: Se. Source: The Met, New York, NY, USA. Used under Fair Use.

  • OZ-16: Se on display in 2015 at the Musical Instruments Museum in Brussels, Belgium. Source: Thomas Quine. Used with Permission.

  • OZ-17: Modern Se in ancient style from China Music 2012. Source: Sound of China Facebook. Used with Permission.

  • OZ-18: 50-string Se from 1930’s Shanghai. Source: suona.com forum. Used under Fair Use.

  • OZ-19: Unknown Korean zither 1. Source: Museum of Musical Instruments at the University of Leipzig, Germany. Used under Fair Use.

  • OZ-20: Unknown Korean zither 2. Source: Museum of Musical Instruments at the University of Leipzig, Germany. Used under Fair Use.

  • OZ-21: Unknown Korean zither 3 Museum of Musical Instruments at the University of Leipzig, Germany. Used under Fair Use.

  • OZ-22: Unknown zither on display in 2012 at the Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig, Germany. Source: Thomas Quine. Used with Permission.

Luthiery

How it’s Made

  • HM-1: Image of Qin making tools from China Music 2018. Source: GZA

  • HM-2: みつや琴製造株式会社-Mitsuyakoto.Co.ltd., a video of zither making. Source: Youtube. Used under Fair Use.

  • HM-3: Screenshot of Guzheng/Koto construction overview. Source: MitsuyaKoto.com. Used under Fair Use.

  • HM-4: 古争的制作, a video of guzheng making. Source: Youtube. Used under Fair Use.

  • HM-5: Model and diagram of modern 21-string guzheng with dimensions. Source: GZA.

  • HM-6: Quartersawn plank diagram. Source: HardWoodDistributors.org. Used under Fair Use.

  • HM-7: Model of horizontal and vertical curvatures of soundboards. Source: GZA.

  • HM-8: Isometric view of curved soundboards. Source: GZA

  • HM-9: End view of curved soundboard. Source: GZA

  • HM-10: Groves cut into internal face of guzheng soundboard from Taiwan. Source: GZA

  • HM-11: Soundboard bracing for guzheng From Taiwan with grooved soundboard. Source: GZA

  • HM-12: Soundboard bracing for guzheng From Taiwan with smoothed soundboard. Source: GZA

  • HM-13: Soundboard bracing for Sound of China guzheng produced in Shanghai. Source: GZA

  • HM-14: External tuning posts of guzheng from Taiwan. Source GZA.

  • HM-15: Hidden tuning pins of modern guzheng from Shanghai. Source: GZA.

  • HM-16: Rendering of past bridge designs. Source: Cheng 1991. Used under Fair Use.

  • HM-17: Rendering of Tang Dynasty movable bridges stored in Japan. Source: Ferguson 1979. Used under Fair Use.

  • HM-18: Rendering of modern guzheng bridge. Source: Lee/Gresham 2002. Used under Fair Use.

Import Issues, CITES

  • none

Wood Drying

  • WD-1: Air-drying Paulownia Logs. Screengrab from Mitsuya Koto's promotional video. Source: Mitsuya Koto. Used under Fair Use.

  • WD-2: Relative Humidity vs. Equilibrium Moisture Content in woods at 70 degree F (21.1 Degrees C). Source: The Wood Database. Used under Fair Use.

  • WD-3: Charts of changes in frequency, by Herz and Cents, of Spruce planks. Source: Martínez et. al (2011) Used under Fair Use.

  • WD-4: Larger version of WD-1. Source: Mitsuya Koto. Used under Fair Use.

Wood Selection

  • WS-1: End of logs. Source: 364 by Grizzlybear.se, Public Domain

Music

Cypher Notation

  • CN-1: Do, Re, Mi, Fa, So, La, Ti, and rest in Cypher Notation. Source: GZA

  • CN-2: Indicating octaves in Cypher Notation. Source: GZA

  • CN-3: Cypher notation for durations from quarter to thirty second notes. Source: GZA

  • CN-4: Cypher notation for whole to half notes. Source: GZA

  • CN-5: Cypher notation for rests from one quarter to one thirty second in duration. Source: GZA

  • CN-6: Cypher notation for whole and half rests. Source: GZA

Examples

  • ME-1: "Garyan Wong - China Spirit Music Ensemble - Oakland Asian Cultural Center Winter Gala" Source: --Mark--. Used under CC-BY-NC-SA 2.0

  • ME-2: 高山流水 (Gao shan liu shui/Cao sơn lưu thuỷ). Source: Youtube. Used under Fair Use.

  • ME-3: Guzheng - Fishermen's Song at Eventide 渔舟唱晚. Source: Youtube. Used under Fair Use.

  • ME-4: 戰颱風 王昌元. Source: Youtube. Used under Fair Use.

  • ME-5: 王中山古箏演奏:漢江韻 GuZheng Trio: The Charm of Han River. Source: Youtube. Used under Fair Use.

  • ME-6: 著名青年古箏演奏家沈樂、楊陽演奏《八面風》. Source: Youtube. Used under Fair Use.

  • ME-7: 千本桜 【古箏】 Senbonzakura 【Chinese Guzheng】. Source: Youtube. Used under Fair Use.

Repertoire

  • RP-1: Gōngchěpǔ (工尺谱) style music notation. Source: "冷暖人生" by Dennis Wong. Used under CC-BY-2.0.

Parts and Accessories

Nail Materials

  • NM-1: Endangered turtles killed for smuggling. Source: Naira Naija News. Used under Fair Use.

Nail Shapes

  • NS-1: Example nails with length from small to large. Source: GZA

  • NS-2: Comparison of Flat, Single Arc, Double Arc nail shapes. Source: GZA

  • NS-3: Comparison of No indent, concave groove, double groove nails. Source: GZA

  • NS-4: Comparison of nail thicknesses of 1.5mm, 2.8mm, 3mm. Source: GZA

  • NS-5: Four different thumb nail shapes. Source: GZA

Parts and Terms

  • PT-1: X-ray of guzheng bridges and strings from inside of instrument. Source: GZA

  • PT-2: Parts of a guzheng, numbers 1-8. Source: GZA

  • PT-3: Parts of a guzheng, numbers 9-12. Source: GZA

  • PT-4: Parts of a guzheng, numbers 13-18. Source: GZA

  • PT-5: 3D-Diagram of guzheng rendered in Sketchup. Source: GZA

Strings

  • ST-1: Four brands of guzheng string. Same as CO-4

  • ST-2: Guzheng String Diameters, Inches. Source: GZA

  • ST-3: Guzheng String Diameters, Millimeters. Source: GZA

About

Guzheng Alive

  • GA-1: Example guzheng. Source: GZA

Sources

Descriptions

  • SD-1: Interconnection of select cited sources. Source: GZA

Reviews

  • RV-1: Leukotape. Source: GZA

  • RV-2: Cherub tuner and wrench all-in-one. Source: GZA

  • RV-3: Clip tuner. Source: GZA