Bibliography

Where the information on this site originates from. I have read far more than this, but these led to direct changes to this site. More information about particularly prominent sources are given on the Source Discussion page. 

Last Updated: December 2018

English-Language References

  1. Akyildiz, M. Hakan; Kol, Hamiyet Sahin (2010) Some technological properties and uses of paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa Steud.) wood, Journal of Environmental Biology (India), 31 351-355. Retrieved June 18, 2018 from http://www.jeb.co.in/journal_issues/201005_may10/paper_21.pdf

  2. Armstrong, WP (July 12, 2010) Vegetable Ivory retrieved November 25th, 2018 https://www2.palomar.edu/users/warmstrong/pljan99.htm

  3. be_yonding. (2017). Online map of annual relative humidity in China. Retrieved October 27, 2017, from http://drr.ikcest.org/map/m0124

  4. Bucur, V. (2016). Handbook of materials for string musical instruments. Switzerland: Springer. Retrieved from http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=4659876

  5. California Youth Chinese Symphony Exam Song List, Retrieved October 31, 2018 from http://www.uscycs.org/exam-song-list.html#guzheng

  6. Catalogue of Life. (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://www.catalogueoflife.org/

  7. Chang, C. (n.d.-a). Common Frame Woods Used on Guzheng 常用古箏邊板木料. Retrieved October 25, 2017, from https://www.chinesezither.net/pages/common-frame-woods

  8. Chang, C. (n.d.-b). FAQ – Sound of China Guzheng Music. Retrieved July 19, 2018, from https://www.chinesezither.net/pages/faqs

  9. Chang, C. (n.d.-c). Guzheng Articles. Retrieved October 25, 2017, from https://www.chinesezither.net/pages/articles

  10. Chang, C. (n.d.-d). Introduction to Guzheng Tuning of the Guzheng. Sound of China.

  11. Chang, C. (n.d.-e). The Soundboard of Guzheng: What is "梧桐 wu-tong"? Retrieved October 25, 2017, from https://www.chinesezither.net/pages/the-soundboard-woods

  12. Chang, C. (n.d.-f). Mitsuya Koto Collection Guzheng (Made in Japan) Retrieved July 29, 2018, from https://www.chinesezither.net/collections/guzheng/products/mitsuya-koto-collection-guzheng-made-in-japan-1

  13. Chen, Y.-Z. (1991). The Zheng: A Chinese Instrument and Its Music. Brown University.

  14. Cheng, T. (1991). Zheng, Tradition and Change. University of Maryland at Baltimore County.

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  16. Chinese Music in North America, List of ensembles playing Chinese music in North America, Rev. December 13, 2017. https://docs.google.com/document/d/1TIpcGs6kNUEXPynkGinXkEsrE5ulSU-aWS48gi3k2lg/

  17. Drying wood for musical instruments A primer on various lumber drying techniques as they relate to musical instrument construction. (1998).

  18. efloras.org. (n.d.). Flora of China. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

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  20. Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2017). Changes to international trade controls for Rosewood ( Dalbergia spp .). Retrieved from https://www.ec.gc.ca/cites/9E21FDBF-3F22-4CAA-9417-C656C9DBEDAB/rosewoods-en.pdf

  21. Ferguson, D. L. (1979). Modern Performance Techniques for the Chinese Zither Cheng. University of California Los Angeles.

  22. Gaywood, H. R. A. (1996). Guqin and Guzheng: the historical and contemporary development of two Chinese musical instruments. Durham University. Retrieved from http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/4894/1/4894_2363.PDF?UkUDh:CyT

  23. Gem 5, "Ivory" (n.d.) retrieved November 25th from http://gem5.com/stone/62/ivory/

  24. Han, M. (2013). The emergence of the Chinese zheng: traditional context, contemporary evolution, and cultural identity. University of British of Columbia. Retrieved from https://open.library.ubc.ca/media/stream/pdf/24/1.0073945/1

  25. Han, M. (2000). Historical and Contemporary Development of the Chinese Zheng. University of British Columbia. Retrieved from https://open.library.ubc.ca/media/stream/pdf/831/1.0099591/1

  26. Hardwood Distributors. (n.d.). WHAT IS RIFT SAWN LUMBER? Retrieved October 25, 2017, from http://www.hardwooddistributors.org/blog/postings/what-is-rift-sawn-lumber/

  27. Martínez et. al (2011) "Vibration Testing for the Evaluation of the Effects of Moisture Content on the In-Plane Elastic Constants of Wood Used in Musical Instruments". Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-94-007-1703-9_2.

  28. Hopkin, B. (1996). Musical instrument design : practical information for instrument making. Tucson, Ariz.: See Sharp Press. Retrieved from http://www.freading.com/ebooks/details/r:download/NDIzODA3MTY=

  29. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. (2000). The IUCN red list of threatened species. IUCN Global Species Programme Red List Unit. Retrieved from http://www.iucnredlist.org/

  30. Kao, S. H. D. (2003). The Development of The Modern Zheng in Taiwan and Singapore. University of Durham. Retrieved from http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/11860/1/11860.pdf?DDD23+

  31. Khê, T. Van. (1985). Chinese Music and Musical Traditions of Eastern Asia. The World of Music, 27(1), 78–90. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/43562680

  32. Kwok, T. J. (1987). Zheng: a Chinese Zither and its Music. University of Hawaii.

  33. Lawergren, B. (2000). Chapter 3: Strings. In Music in the age of Confucius (pp. 65–85). Seattle.

  34. League of American Orchestras. (2017). CITES Protected Species Travel Tips. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from https://americanorchestras.org/advocacy-government/travel-with-instruments/endangered-species-material/protected-species-travel-tips.html

  35. Lee, A. J., & Gresham, M. (2002). An Introduction to the Gu-Zheng Volumes 1-4. Lux Nova. Retrieved from http://www.luxnova.com/lnpwebstore/catalog.php?pcode=LNP-0124

  36. Lua Shui Chung, J. (2006). Zheng Music : The Reception of a Post-1949 Chinese Tradition in Hong Kong. The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/48533325.pdf

  37. Martínez, M. A. P., Poletti, P., & Espert, L. G. (2011). Vibration and Structural Acoustics Analysis. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1703-9

  38. Michelle Lee (2017), "Guzheng" photograph and description. Retrieved July 29th 2018 from https://www.flickr.com/photos/michellerlee/32640176080/

  39. Missouri Botanical Garden. (n.d.). Catalpa ovata. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=d382

  40. Moule, A. C. (1908). A List of the Musical and other Sound-Producing Instruments of the Chinese. Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 39, 190. Retrieved from http://library.uoregon.edu/ec/e-asia/read/moulemusic.pdf

  41. People’s Republic of China. (2010). Copyright Law of the People’s Republic of China, (26), 1–26. Retrieved from http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/en/cn/cn031en.pdf

  42. Pegg, C. (2001). Yatga [yataga, yatuga], The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. London: Oxford University Press.

  43. Pyromation, (n.d.). Standard Wire Gauge Conversions. Retrieved May 18, 2018 from https://www.pyromation.com/Catalog/w03.pdf

  44. Rodgers, O. E., & Masino, T. R. (1990). The effect of wood removal on bridge frequencies. CASJ Catgut Acoustical Society Journal, 1(November), 6–10. Retrieved from http://www.oosterhofonline.net/pdf/Bridge_wood_removal_Rodgers.pdf

  45. Qing Guzheng, Progress Timeline, Retrieved October 31, 2018 from http://www.qingguzheng.com/progress-timeline.html

  46. The Sapp Family (n.d.) Koto Scores, retrieved August 23rd from http://koto.sapp.org/

  47. Shenzen Meideal Musical Instruments Company Ltd., (n.d.), Electric Zheng. Retrieved July 10, 2018 from http://meideal.com/?portfolio_page=mdz1008

  48. Shi, J. (2014). Extending the sound of the guzheng. University of York. Retrieved from http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/8788/

  49. Simpson, W. T. (2001). Kiln Types and Features. Dry Kiln Operator’s Manual, 42–73.

  50. Singapore Academy of Law. (n.d.). Ch.12 Intellectual Property Law. Retrieved October 31, 2017, from http://www.singaporelaw.sg/sglaw/laws-of-singapore/commercial-law/chapter-12

  51. StewMac, (n.d.). Micro Vacuum Hose Kit. Retrieved July 19, 2018, from https://www.stewmac.com/Luthier_Tools/Tools_by_Job/Tools_for_Maintenance/Micro_Vacuum_Hose_Kit.html

  52. Stiegel, J. E. (1983). The History, Usage, and Technique of the Chinese Cheng. Northern Illinois University.

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  54. The Plant List. (n.d.). List of Paulownia Species. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/search?q=paulownia

  55. Thompson, J. (n.d.). Origins of the Qin. Retrieved October 25, 2017, from http://www.silkqin.com/09hist/origins.htm

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  57. US Fish and Wildlife Service. (2017). Letter on Appendix II of CITES. Retrieved from https://www.fws.gov/international/pdf/letter-appendix-II-timber-listings-november-2016.pdf

  58. US Fish and Wildlife Service. (2017). Questions and Answers : Recent Changes to CITES Rosewood Protections Updates. Retrieved from https://www.fws.gov/international/pdf/questions-and-answers-appendix-II-timber-listings-December-2016.pdf

  59. USDA. (1984). Chapter 1 Properties of Wood Related to Drying. In USDA Agricultural Handbook AH188 Dry Kiln Operators Manual (pp. 1–41). Retrieved from http://www.woodweb.com/knowledge_base/Dry_Kiln_Operators_Manual.html

  60. Van Aalst, J. A. (1884). Chinese Music. Shanghai: The Inspector General of Customs. Retrieved from https://ia801406.us.archive.org/10/items/chinesemusic00vana/chinesemusic00vana.pdf

  61. van Gulik, R. H. (1951). Brief Note on the Cheng, the Chinese Small Cither. Toyo Ongaku Kenkyu : The Journal of the Society for the Research of Asiatic Music, 1951(9), en10-en25. http://doi.org/10.11446/toyoongakukenkyu1936.1951.en10

  62. Wikipedia (n.d.) Pangolin Retrieved August 3, 2018 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pangolin

  63. Wong, S. S. (2005). 筝 Zheng. In Qi: An Instrumental Guide to the Chinese Orchestra (pp. 69–83). Singapore: TENG.

  64. The Wood Database, "Tagua Nut" (n.d.) retrieved Novermeber 25th, 2018 from https://www.wood-database.com/tagua-nut/

  65. Woodweb. (2010). Wood Drying Conditions and Musical Instrument Sound Quality. Retrieved October 8, 2017, from http://www.woodweb.com/knowledge_base/Wood_Drying_Conditions_and_Musical.html

  66. World Wildlife Fund (n.d.) Infographic: Sea Turtles Retrieved August 21, 2018 from https://www.worldwildlife.org/pages/infographic-sea-turtles

  67. Zheng, C., & Knobloch, Y. (1985). A Discussion of the History of the Gu zheng. Asian Music, 14(2), 1–16. Retrieved from hhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/833935

  68. Zimei Chinese Culture and Art Academy, Guzheng Level Sheet, Retrieved October 31, 2018 from http://www.zccaa.org/guzheng-level-sheet.htm

Non-English Sources

  1. Chen, S. (1051). 桐譜 (Tong Guide). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from https://zh.wikisource.org/zh/桐譜

  2. Chou, M. (2006). The Symbol and Cultural Connotation of Phoenix Tree, 32(August), 35–50.

  3. HKZhengArt, (n.d.-a). 【珍藏系列】 敦煌(韻牌) -非洲馬達加斯紫檀木古箏 ([Collection Series] - Dunhuang (Yun Brand) African Madagascar Rosewood Guzheng]) retrieved July 29, 2018 from http://hkzhengart.com/guzheng/item/zac02?category_id=1

  4. HKZhengArt (n.d.-b). 香港古箏網 (Guzheng Art). Retrieved October 25, 2017, from http://www.hkzhengart.com/

  5. Thompson Hardwoods Inc. (n.d.). 杨木 (Yangmu). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://www.thompsonhardwoods.com/cn/poplar.html

  6. 梧桐图片 (Wutong Pictures). (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://www.yuhuagu.com/ktsh/4718.html

  7. 毛泡桐图片 (Pictures of Paulownia). (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://www.yuhuagu.com/plus/view.php?aid=4879

  8. 古争的制作 (Making a Guzheng). (n.d.). Retrieved October 25, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CmGUpmZU6MM

  9. guzhengw.cn. (2006). 多声弦制古筝在现代筝乐中的应用. (Paper on Multitonic zhengs) Retrieved from http://www.guzhengw.cn/upload_files/other/1_20140523120519_cGFnZQ==.pdf

  10. Hong Kong Guzheng Performer's Association, “Exam Details”, Retrieved October 31, 2018 from http://www.hkguzheng.org/examdetails.html

  11. 天艺古筝小课堂“古筝琴弦常识汇总篇” (Tianyi Guzheng Small Classroom "Guzheng Strings General Knowledge Compendium"). (n.d.). Retrieved May 12, 2018, from http://www.ty21.com/index.php/tianyiwenhua/316-2014-12-18-05-31-35

  12. 鹿筋 (Lujin, Deer Tendon). (n.d.). Retrieved May 18, 2018 from https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%B9%BF%E7%AD%8B/669891

  13. 马鹿 (Red Deer). (n.d.). Retrieved May 18, 2018 from https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%A9%AC%E9%B9%BF/28786

  14. 天艺古筝小课堂“古筝琴弦” (Tianyi Guzheng Small Classroom "Guzheng Strings"). (n.d.) Retrieved May 29, 2018 from http://www.ty21.com/index.php/tianyiwenhua/327-2015-01-09-05-44-51

  15. 华乐大典·古筝卷 乐曲篇(上)(Chinese Music Dictionary Guzheng Music Volume 1) Chinese National Orchestral Society, June 2016. Shanghai Music Publishing House. ISBN: 978-7-5523-1123-5

  16. 古筝考级曲集 (Guzheng Grading Album) Volumes 1-4, Chinese National Orchestral Society, People’s Music Publishing House, July 2018. ISBNs:
    9787103052273, 9787103052280, 9787103052297, 9787103052303

  17. 数据古箏考级曲目大全 (Gu Zheng Exam Scores selected by Li Meng ) Li Meng, March 2015, Tongxin Publishing House, ISBN: 9787805936970

  18. 新编古筝教程-*二册 (New Guzheng Tutorial Book 2), Sha Lijing et al, February 2015, Shanghai Century Publishing Group, ISBN: 9787552306323

  19. 古筝考级乐曲实用辅导 (Guzheng Grading Music Practical Tutor) Volumes 1-2, Zhang Jing and Xuling Yinfang , March 2018, People’s Music Publishing House ISBNs: 9787103054635, 9787103054628

  20. 撇开个人习惯问题,古筝指甲中,凹槽、单面弧、双面弧,哪种好?(For personal preference, for guzheng nails, which is better, concave groove, single-sided arc, or double-sided arc?) (January 27th, 2018) retrieved November 24, 2018 from https://www.zhihu.com/question/27742486/answer/41983560

  21. 怎样挑选心仪的古筝指甲 (How to Choose Your Favorite Guzheng Nails), (March 03, 2018) retrieved November 24, 2018 from https://www.xiaohongshu.com/discovery/item/5abbaa3e19f71621b842940a?_at=4094af468c2e9e3c03028a90cb5facedce470

Personal Sources

  • Teacher Number 1, name withheld for privacy. Lessons, incidental information, and personal correspondence, 2017

  • Teacher Number 2, name withheld for privacy. Lessons and incidental information, 2018

  • Yukes, musician, personal correspondence, 2017

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