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Where the information on this site originates from. I have read far more than this, but these led to direct changes to this site. More information about particularly prominent sources are given on the Source Discussion page. 

Last Updated: January 2019

English-Language References

  1. Akyildiz, M. Hakan; Kol, Hamiyet Sahin (2010) Some technological properties and uses of paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa Steud.) wood, Journal of Environmental Biology (India), 31 351-355. Retrieved June 18, 2018 from

  2. Armstrong, WP (July 12, 2010) Vegetable Ivory retrieved November 25th, 2018

  3. be_yonding. (2017). Online map of annual relative humidity in China. Retrieved October 27, 2017, from

  4. Bucur, V. (2016). Handbook of materials for string musical instruments. Switzerland: Springer. Retrieved from

  5. California Youth Chinese Symphony Exam Song List, Retrieved October 31, 2018 from

  6. Catalogue of Life. (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from

  7. Chang, C. (n.d.-a). Common Frame Woods Used on Guzheng 常用古箏邊板木料. Retrieved October 25, 2017, from

  8. Chang, C. (n.d.-b). FAQ – Sound of China Guzheng Music. Retrieved July 19, 2018, from

  9. Chang, C. (n.d.-c). Guzheng Articles. Retrieved October 25, 2017, from

  10. Chang, C. (n.d.-d). Introduction to Guzheng Tuning of the Guzheng. Sound of China.

  11. Chang, C. (n.d.-e). The Soundboard of Guzheng: What is "梧桐 wu-tong"? Retrieved October 25, 2017, from

  12. Chang, C. (n.d.-f). Mitsuya Koto Collection Guzheng (Made in Japan) Retrieved July 29, 2018, from

  13. Chen, Y.-Z. (1991). The Zheng: A Chinese Instrument and Its Music. Brown University.

  14. Cheng, T. (1991). Zheng, Tradition and Change. University of Maryland at Baltimore County.

  15. China News Analysis. (1961). Music, 1949-1961 (Part One). China News Analysis, 1(381), 7. Retrieved from

  16. Chinese Music in North America, List of ensembles playing Chinese music in North America, Rev. December 13, 2017.

  17. Drying wood for musical instruments A primer on various lumber drying techniques as they relate to musical instrument construction. (1998).

  18. (n.d.). Flora of China. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from

  19. The Engineering ToolBox, "Densities of Solids" (n.d.) retrieved November 25th from

  20. Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2017). Changes to international trade controls for Rosewood ( Dalbergia spp .). Retrieved from

  21. Ferguson, D. L. (1979). Modern Performance Techniques for the Chinese Zither Cheng. University of California Los Angeles.

  22. Gaywood, H. R. A. (1996). Guqin and Guzheng: the historical and contemporary development of two Chinese musical instruments. Durham University. Retrieved from

  23. Gem 5, "Ivory" (n.d.) retrieved November 25th from

  24. Han, M. (2013). The emergence of the Chinese zheng: traditional context, contemporary evolution, and cultural identity. University of British of Columbia. Retrieved from

  25. Han, M. (2000). Historical and Contemporary Development of the Chinese Zheng. University of British Columbia. Retrieved from

  26. Hardwood Distributors. (n.d.). WHAT IS RIFT SAWN LUMBER? Retrieved October 25, 2017, from

  27. Martínez et. al (2011) "Vibration Testing for the Evaluation of the Effects of Moisture Content on the In-Plane Elastic Constants of Wood Used in Musical Instruments". Retrieved from:

  28. Hopkin, B. (1996). Musical instrument design : practical information for instrument making. Tucson, Ariz.: See Sharp Press. Retrieved from

  29. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. (2000). The IUCN red list of threatened species. IUCN Global Species Programme Red List Unit. Retrieved from

  30. Kao, S. H. D. (2003). The Development of The Modern Zheng in Taiwan and Singapore. University of Durham. Retrieved from

  31. Khê, T. Van. (1985). Chinese Music and Musical Traditions of Eastern Asia. The World of Music, 27(1), 78–90. Retrieved from

  32. Kwok, T. J. (1987). Zheng: a Chinese Zither and its Music. University of Hawaii.

  33. Lawergren, B. (2000). Chapter 3: Strings. In Music in the age of Confucius (pp. 65–85). Seattle.

  34. League of American Orchestras. (2017). CITES Protected Species Travel Tips. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from

  35. Lee, A. J., & Gresham, M. (2002). An Introduction to the Gu-Zheng Volumes 1-4. Lux Nova. Retrieved from

  36. Lua Shui Chung, J. (2006). Zheng Music : The Reception of a Post-1949 Chinese Tradition in Hong Kong. The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Retrieved from

  37. Martínez, M. A. P., Poletti, P., & Espert, L. G. (2011). Vibration and Structural Acoustics Analysis.

  38. Michelle Lee (2017), "Guzheng" photograph and description. Retrieved July 29th 2018 from

  39. Missouri Botanical Garden. (n.d.). Catalpa ovata. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from

  40. Moule, A. C. (1908). A List of the Musical and other Sound-Producing Instruments of the Chinese. Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 39, 190. Retrieved from

  41. People’s Republic of China. (2010). Copyright Law of the People’s Republic of China, (26), 1–26. Retrieved from

  42. Pegg, C. (2001). Yatga [yataga, yatuga], The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. London: Oxford University Press.

  43. Pyromation, (n.d.). Standard Wire Gauge Conversions. Retrieved May 18, 2018 from

  44. Rodgers, O. E., & Masino, T. R. (1990). The effect of wood removal on bridge frequencies. CASJ Catgut Acoustical Society Journal, 1(November), 6–10. Retrieved from

  45. Qing Guzheng, Progress Timeline, Retrieved October 31, 2018 from

  46. The Sapp Family (n.d.) Koto Scores, retrieved August 23rd from

  47. Shenzen Meideal Musical Instruments Company Ltd., (n.d.), Electric Zheng. Retrieved July 10, 2018 from

  48. Shi, J. (2014). Extending the sound of the guzheng. University of York. Retrieved from

  49. Simpson, W. T. (2001). Kiln Types and Features. Dry Kiln Operator’s Manual, 42–73.

  50. Singapore Academy of Law. (n.d.). Ch.12 Intellectual Property Law. Retrieved October 31, 2017, from

  51. StewMac, (n.d.). Micro Vacuum Hose Kit. Retrieved July 19, 2018, from

  52. Stiegel, J. E. (1983). The History, Usage, and Technique of the Chinese Cheng. Northern Illinois University.

  53. Subject : Bridge grain orientation. Retrieved October 21, 2017, from

  54. The Plant List. (n.d.). List of Paulownia Species. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from

  55. Thompson, J. (n.d.). Origins of the Qin. Retrieved October 25, 2017, from

  56. US Fish and Wildlife Service. (2017). Currently Listed Tree Species, CITES. Retrieved August 25, 2017, from

  57. US Fish and Wildlife Service. (2017). Letter on Appendix II of CITES. Retrieved from

  58. US Fish and Wildlife Service. (2017). Questions and Answers : Recent Changes to CITES Rosewood Protections Updates. Retrieved from

  59. USDA. (1984). Chapter 1 Properties of Wood Related to Drying. In USDA Agricultural Handbook AH188 Dry Kiln Operators Manual (pp. 1–41). Retrieved from

  60. Van Aalst, J. A. (1884). Chinese Music. Shanghai: The Inspector General of Customs. Retrieved from

  61. van Gulik, R. H. (1951). Brief Note on the Cheng, the Chinese Small Cither. Toyo Ongaku Kenkyu : The Journal of the Society for the Research of Asiatic Music, 1951(9), en10-en25.

  62. Wikipedia (n.d.) Pangolin Retrieved August 3, 2018 from

  63. Wong, S. S. (2005). 筝 Zheng. In Qi: An Instrumental Guide to the Chinese Orchestra (pp. 69–83). Singapore: TENG.

  64. The Wood Database, "Tagua Nut" (n.d.) retrieved Novermeber 25th, 2018 from

  65. Woodweb. (2010). Wood Drying Conditions and Musical Instrument Sound Quality. Retrieved October 8, 2017, from

  66. World Wildlife Fund (n.d.) Infographic: Sea Turtles Retrieved August 21, 2018 from

  67. Xia Nianhe, Gilbert M.G. (2003) “Santalaceae”, Flora of China Vol 5 Pages 208-219. Retrieved January 23 2019 from

  68. Zheng, C., & Knobloch, Y. (1985). A Discussion of the History of the Gu zheng. Asian Music, 14(2), 1–16. Retrieved from h

  69. Zimei Chinese Culture and Art Academy, Guzheng Level Sheet, Retrieved October 31, 2018 from

Non-English Sources

  1. Chen, S. (1051). 桐譜 (Tong Guide). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from桐譜

  2. Chou, M. (2006). The Symbol and Cultural Connotation of Phoenix Tree, 32(August), 35–50.

  3. HKZhengArt, (n.d.-a). 【珍藏系列】 敦煌(韻牌) -非洲馬達加斯紫檀木古箏 ([Collection Series] - Dunhuang (Yun Brand) African Madagascar Rosewood Guzheng]) retrieved July 29, 2018 from

  4. HKZhengArt (n.d.-b). 香港古箏網 (Guzheng Art). Retrieved October 25, 2017, from

  5. Thompson Hardwoods Inc. (n.d.). 杨木 (Yangmu). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from

  6. 梧桐图片 (Wutong Pictures). (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from

  7. 毛泡桐图片 (Pictures of Paulownia). (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from

  8. 古争的制作 (Making a Guzheng). (n.d.). Retrieved October 25, 2017, from

  9. (2006). 多声弦制古筝在现代筝乐中的应用. (Paper on Multitonic zhengs) Retrieved from

  10. Hong Kong Guzheng Performer's Association, “Exam Details”, Retrieved October 31, 2018 from

  11. 天艺古筝小课堂“古筝琴弦常识汇总篇” (Tianyi Guzheng Small Classroom "Guzheng Strings General Knowledge Compendium"). (n.d.). Retrieved May 12, 2018, from

  12. 鹿筋 (Lujin, Deer Tendon). (n.d.). Retrieved May 18, 2018 from

  13. 马鹿 (Red Deer). (n.d.). Retrieved May 18, 2018 from

  14. 天艺古筝小课堂“古筝琴弦” (Tianyi Guzheng Small Classroom "Guzheng Strings"). (n.d.) Retrieved May 29, 2018 from

  15. 华乐大典·古筝卷 乐曲篇(上)(Chinese Music Dictionary Guzheng Music Volume 1) Chinese National Orchestral Society, June 2016. Shanghai Music Publishing House. ISBN: 978-7-5523-1123-5

  16. 古筝考级曲集 (Guzheng Grading Album) Volumes 1-4, Chinese National Orchestral Society, People’s Music Publishing House, July 2018. ISBNs:
    9787103052273, 9787103052280, 9787103052297, 9787103052303

  17. 数据古箏考级曲目大全 (Gu Zheng Exam Scores selected by Li Meng ) Li Meng, March 2015, Tongxin Publishing House, ISBN: 9787805936970

  18. 新编古筝教程-*二册 (New Guzheng Tutorial Book 2), Sha Lijing et al, February 2015, Shanghai Century Publishing Group, ISBN: 9787552306323

  19. 古筝考级乐曲实用辅导 (Guzheng Grading Music Practical Tutor) Volumes 1-2, Zhang Jing and Xuling Yinfang , March 2018, People’s Music Publishing House ISBNs: 9787103054635, 9787103054628

  20. 撇开个人习惯问题,古筝指甲中,凹槽、单面弧、双面弧,哪种好?(For personal preference, for guzheng nails, which is better, concave groove, single-sided arc, or double-sided arc?) (January 27th, 2018) retrieved November 24, 2018 from

  21. 怎样挑选心仪的古筝指甲 (How to Choose Your Favorite Guzheng Nails), (March 03, 2018) retrieved November 24, 2018 from

  22. 古箏-多弦制紅木古箏 (Retail advertisement for Multi-Tonic Guzheng) retrieved January 12, 2019 from

Personal Sources

  • Teacher Number 1, name withheld for privacy. Lessons, incidental information, and personal correspondence, 2017

  • Teacher Number 2, name withheld for privacy. Lessons and incidental information, 2018

  • Yukes, musician, personal correspondence, 2017