Where the information on this site originates from. I have read far more than this, but these led to direct changes to this site. More information about particularly prominent sources are given on the Source Discussion page. 

Last Updated: August 2018

English-Language References

  1. Akyildiz, M. Hakan; Kol, Hamiyet Sahin (2010) Some technological properties and uses of paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa Steud.) wood, Journal of Environmental Biology (India), 31 351-355. Retrieved June 18, 2018 from
  2. be_yonding. (2017). Online map of annual relative humidity in China. Retrieved October 27, 2017, from
  3. Bucur, V. (2016). Handbook of materials for string musical instruments. Switzerland: Springer. Retrieved from
  4. Catalogue of Life. (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from
  5. Chang, C. (n.d.-a). Common Frame Woods Used on Guzheng 常用古箏邊板木料. Retrieved October 25, 2017, from
  6. Chang, C. (n.d.-b). FAQ – Sound of China Guzheng Music. Retrieved July 19, 2018, from
  7. Chang, C. (n.d.-c). Guzheng Articles. Retrieved October 25, 2017, from
  8. Chang, C. (n.d.-d). Introduction to Guzheng Tuning of the Guzheng. Sound of China.
  9. Chang, C. (n.d.-e). The Soundboard of Guzheng: What is "梧桐 wu-tong"? Retrieved October 25, 2017, from
  10. Chang, C. (n.d.-f). Mitsuya Koto Collection Guzheng (Made in Japan) Retrieved July 29, 2018, from
  11. Chen, Y.-Z. (1991). The Zheng: A Chinese Instrument and Its Music. Brown University.
  12. Cheng, T. (1991). Zheng, Tradition and Change. University of Maryland at Baltimore County.
  13. China News Analysis. (1961). Music, 1949-1961 (Part One). China News Analysis, 1(381), 7. Retrieved from
  14. Chinese Music in North America, List of ensembles playing Chinese music in North America, Rev. December 13, 2017.
  15. Drying wood for musical instruments A primer on various lumber drying techniques as they relate to musical instrument construction. (1998).
  16. (n.d.). Flora of China. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from
  17. Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2017). Changes to international trade controls for Rosewood ( Dalbergia spp .). Retrieved from
  18. Ferguson, D. L. (1979). Modern Performance Techniques for the Chinese Zither Cheng. University of California Los Angeles.
  19. Gaywood, H. R. A. (1996). Guqin and Guzheng: the historical and contemporary development of two Chinese musical instruments. Durham University. Retrieved from
  20. Han, M. (2013). The emergence of the Chinese zheng: traditional context, contemporary evolution, and cultural identity. University of British of Columbia. Retrieved from
  21. Hardwood Distributors. (n.d.). WHAT IS RIFT SAWN LUMBER? Retrieved October 25, 2017, from
  22. Hopkin, B. (1996). Musical instrument design : practical information for instrument making. Tucson, Ariz.: See Sharp Press. Retrieved from
  23. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. (2000). The IUCN red list of threatened species. IUCN Global Species Programme Red List Unit. Retrieved from
  24. Kao, S. H. D. (2003). The Development of The Modern Zheng in Taiwan and Singapore. University of Durham. Retrieved from
  25. Kwok, T. J. (1987). Zheng: a Chinese Zither and its Music. University of Hawaii.
  26. Lawergren, B. (2000). Chapter 3: Strings. In Music in the age of Confucius (pp. 65–85). Seattle.
  27. League of American Orchestras. (2017). CITES Protected Species Travel Tips. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from
  28. Lee, A. J., & Gresham, M. (2002). An Introduction to the Gu-Zheng Volumes 1-4. Lux Nova. Retrieved from
  29. Martínez, M. A. P., Poletti, P., & Espert, L. G. (2011). Vibration and Structural Acoustics Analysis.
  30. Michelle Lee (2017), "Guzheng" photograph and description. Retrieved July 29th 2018 from
  31. Missouri Botanical Garden. (n.d.). Catalpa ovata. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from
  32. Moule, A. C. (1908). A List of the Musical and other Sound-Producing Instruments of the Chinese. Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 39, 190. Retrieved from
  33. People’s Republic of China. (2010). Copyright Law of the People’s Republic of China, (26), 1–26. Retrieved from
  34. Pegg, C. (2001). Yatga [yataga, yatuga], The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. London: Oxford University Press.
  35. Pyromation, (n.d.). Standard Wire Gauge Conversions. Retrieved May 18, 2018 from
  36. Rodgers, O. E., & Masino, T. R. (1990). The effect of wood removal on bridge frequencies. CASJ Catgut Acoustical Society Journal, 1(November), 6–10. Retrieved from
  37. The Sapp Family (n.d.) Koto Scores, retrieved August 23rd from
  38. Shenzen Meideal Musical Instruments Company Ltd., (n.d.), Electric Zheng. Retrieved July 10, 2018 from
  39. Shi, J. (2014). Extending the sound of the guzheng. University of York. Retrieved from
  40. Simpson, W. T. (2001). Kiln Types and Features. Dry Kiln Operator’s Manual, 42–73.
  41. Singapore Academy of Law. (n.d.). Ch.12 Intellectual Property Law. Retrieved October 31, 2017, from
  42. StewMac, (n.d.). Micro Vacuum Hose Kit.  Retrieved July 19, 2018, from
  43. Subject : Bridge grain orientation. Retrieved October 21, 2017, from
  44. The Plant List. (n.d.). List of Paulownia Species. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from
  45. Thompson, J. (n.d.). Origins of the Qin. Retrieved October 25, 2017, from
  46. US Fish and Wildlife Service. (2017). Currently Listed Tree Species, CITES. Retrieved August 25, 2017, from
  47. US Fish and Wildlife Service. (2017). Letter on Appendix II of CITES. Retrieved from
  48. US Fish and Wildlife Service. (2017). Questions and Answers : Recent Changes to CITES Rosewood Protections Updates. Retrieved from
  49. USDA. (1984). Chapter 1 Properties of Wood Related to Drying. In USDA Agricultural Handbook AH188 Dry Kiln Operators Manual (pp. 1–41). Retrieved from
  50. Van Aalst, J. A. (1884). Chinese Music. Shanghai: The Inspector General of Customs. Retrieved from
  51. van Gulik, R. H. (1951). Brief Note on the Cheng, the Chinese Small Cither. Toyo Ongaku Kenkyu : The Journal of the Society for the Research of Asiatic Music, 1951(9), en10-en25.
  52. Wikipedia (n.d.) Pangolin Retrieved August 3, 2018 from
  53. Woodweb. (2010). Wood Drying Conditions and Musical Instrument Sound Quality. Retrieved October 8, 2017, from
  54. World Wildlife Fund (n.d.) Infographic: Sea Turtles Retrieved August 21, 2018 from
  55. Zheng, C., & Knobloch, Y. (1985). A Discussion of the History of the Gu zheng. Asian Music, 14(2), 1–16. Retrieved from h

Non-English Sources

  1. Chen, S. (1051). 桐譜 (Tong Guide). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from桐譜
  2. Chou, M. (2006). The Symbol and Cultural Connotation of Phoenix Tree, 32(August), 35–50.
  3. HKZhengArt, (n.d.-a). 【珍藏系列】 敦煌(韻牌) -非洲馬達加斯紫檀木古箏 ([Collection Series] - Dunhuang (Yun Brand) African Madagascar Rosewood Guzheng]) retrieved July 29, 2018 from
  4. HKZhengArt (n.d.-b). 香港古箏網 (Guzheng Art). Retrieved October 25, 2017, from
  5. Thompson Hardwoods Inc. (n.d.). 杨木 (Yangmu). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from
  6. 梧桐图片 (Wutong Pictures). (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from
  7. 毛泡桐图片 (Pictures of Paulownia). (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from
  8. 古争的制作 (Making a Guzheng). (n.d.). Retrieved October 25, 2017, from
  9. (2006). 多声弦制古筝在现代筝乐中的应用. (Paper on Multitonic zhengs) Retrieved from
  10. 天艺古筝小课堂“古筝琴弦常识汇总篇” (Tianyi Guzheng Small Classroom "Guzheng Strings General Knowledge Compendium"). (n.d.). Retrieved May 12, 2018, from
  11. 鹿筋 (Lujin, Deer Tendon). (n.d.). Retrieved May 18, 2018 from 
  12. 马鹿 (Red Deer). (n.d.). Retrieved May 18, 2018 from
  13. 天艺古筝小课堂“古筝琴弦” (Tianyi Guzheng Small Classroom "Guzheng Strings"). (n.d.) Retrieved May 29, 2018 from

Personal Sources

  • Teacher Number 1, name withheld for privacy. Lessons, incidental information, and personal correspondence, 2017
  • Teacher Number 2, name withheld for privacy. Lessons and incidental information, 2018
  • Yukes, musician, personal correspondence, 2017